Benjamin Edelman, assistant professor at Harvard Business School, claims Google and partners are inflating PPC conversion rates and increasing advertiser cost via four specific channels, including Google’s own Chrome browser. Check this article.
Plenty of GAN's merchants are cozy with parasites. When a merchant is listed on a BHO website they don't show what network they're on, but it doesn't really matter anyway since BHOs hijack links across networks.
Just look at the lists. The ones posted here (in the parasites forum) have updates by some of the merchants listed. I found several there and on the Linksteal list that I had been promoting for GAN and since dropped.